Population: 102,374,044

Age structure:

  • 0-14 years: 43.71% (male 22,430,798/female 22,316,910)
  • 15-24 years: 20.04% (male 10,182,973/female 10,332,626)
  • 25-54 years: 29.45% (male 14,970,645/female 15,178,999)
  • 55-64 years: 3.89% (male 1,939,635/female 2,047,041)
  • 65 years and over: 2.91% (male 1,338,985/female 1,635,432) (2016 est.)

Median age:

  • Total: 17.8 years
  • Male: 17.6 years
  • Female: 18 years (2016 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.88% (2016 est.)

Major urban areas - population: ADDIS ABABA (capital) 3.238 million (2015)

Source: CIA Fact book

GDP: GDP: $61.54 billion (2015 est.)

GDP Annual Growth rate: 9.6% (2015 est.)

GDP Contributor by main sector:

  • Agriculture: 20.7%
  • Industry: 27.7%
  • Services: 51.6% (2015 est.)

Economy contributor: Almost 80% of Ethiopia’s population is still employed in the agricultural sector, but services have surpassed agriculture as the principal source of GDP.

Sources: CIA Fact book, World bank

Location: Eastern Africa, west of Somalia


  • total: 1,104,300 sq km
  • land: 1 million sq km
  • water: 104,300 sq km

Coast line: 0 km (landlocked)

Maritime claims: none (landlocked)

Land use:

  • Agricultural land: 36259 (1000 Ha)
  • Arable land: 15.2%
  • Forest: 12.2%
  • Other: 51.5% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land: 2,900 sq km (2012)

Total renewable water resources: 122 cu km (2011)

Sources: CIA Fact book, FAO

Planning Framework

The Ethiopian FY runs from 8 July to 7 July every year (Hamle 1 to Sene 30 in the Ethiopian calendar which is 7 years 113 days behind the Gregorian calendar).

Regional budget planning in Ethiopia is a complex bottom-up process, which is difficult to encapsulate since it involves multiple channels of coordination. The Ethiopian constitution first provides the directives for sub-national budget planning. Article 50(4) requires the state to grant adequate power to the lowest units of government “…to enable the people to participate directly in the administration of such units.” Article 89 (6) states that “…government shall at all times promote the participation of the people in the formulation of national development policies and programmes; it shall also have the duty to support the initiatives of the people in their development endeavours.”

Creating the budget plans has two dimensions: identification of priorities and goals and managing funds in order to fulfil these goals. The first of these tasks is participatory and bottom-up, while the second task, mainly related to financial management, is carried out by the regional and federal governments and hence more top-down.

The Ethiopian decentralization process accords an important role to the lowest unit of the government structure (i.e. the Woreda) in the areas of planning and decision-making.

Local planning begins at the lowest level, the Mengistawi buden (a hamlet with 30 – 60 households) or the Sub-Kebele (a village with 50 – 100 households).There are hold community consultations that result in problem identification and a prioritised list of needs across all sectors . At the Kebele (peasant association representing 150 – 250 households) the priorities are consolidated and then passed on to the Woreda. The priorities are disaggregated into sectors and finally integrated as sector plans into the Woreda plan. That process takes part between February and May of each FY. While the Woreda reportedly has a certain freedom to include additional activities within its plans without interference from higher levels of governance, there are budget and time constraints, and priority is typically given to activities to achieve targets handed down from central and regional government.

The major constitutional powers and duties of the Woreda council include:

  • Approval of the Woreda social service, economic development, and administrative plans and programmes,
  • Collection of land use taxes, agricultural income revenues and other local taxes,
  • Effectively utilizing the sources of revenues, excluding such other revenues allocated and administered by the region,
  • Preparation and approval of the budget,
  • Construction and maintenance of lower grade rural roads,
  • Administering primary schools and health institutions within the Woreda,
  • Directing basic agricultural development activities, managing and protecting the natural resources of the Woreda.


Criteria for pilot region selection

Workshops were held in consultation with key stakeholders to determine the most vital sectors that will contribute to the county sustainable development after transitioning from BAU to GE.

  1. Adwa Woreda - Agriculture, Energy, Forestry and Waste
  2. Bambasi Woreda – Agriculture, Energy, Forestry and Waste
  3. East Estie Woreda - Agriculture, Energy and Forest
  4. Wolmera Woreda - Agriculture, Forestry, Livestock, Manufacturing and Water
  5. Wonsho Woreda - Agriculture, Energy, Forestry, Tourism and Water

Pilot Sub-national Regions

Bambasi Woreda

Bambasi Woreda is one of the twenty woredas found in Beneshangul Gumuze Regional State. It was established in 1995 and classified in to 36 rural and 2 urban kebeles. The woreda is located at N 9o 54 .10o 08״ E 34o 40 .34o 92״. Total population of the Bambasi Woreda according to CSA 2007 is estimated as 64,919 with the population number of male at about 33019 and that of number of female population at about 31900. There are permanent rivers and tributaries which have potential to be used for small and large scale irrigation. Dabus, the largest tributary of Blue Nile River flows between the boarders of this Woreda and Oromia Regional State. The steep slope and rugged land features have been causing sever land degradation that resulted in to formation of acid soil, n gully formation and declining soil fertility. The discharge of existing springs decreased in the watershed area due to the reduction of natural forest coverage and increased surface runoff. In general, the watershed has been facing low economic returns to farm land and other production factors.

Welmera Woreda

Welmera is one of the seven woredas under Finfine Special Zone of Oromia Regional State. Welmera woreda has divided into 24 kebeles (the smallest administrative unit in Ethiopia) of which 23 are rural kebeles while one is urban administrative (Menagesha/Koloboo). Though Holeta town is a separate woreda itself, it is also the capital city of Welmera woreda where all sectors are located. It is located at 32 km from Ethiopian capital city, Addis Ababa or Oromia Regional State capital, Finfine.

The woreda has total land mass of about 809.27 Km2 or 80,927 hectare, which is bordered with Burayu woreda to the East, Ejere woreda to the west, Sululta woreda to the North, and Sabata Hawas woreda to the south (Figure 1). The woreda lies between 8o5' - 9o15' N and 38o25' - 35o45' E, and the elevation ranges between 2060 and 3380 meters above sea level. Population projection made by Central Statistical Authority (CSA) and Welmera woreda Finance and Economic Development (WoFED) office estimated the woreda population to be 102,860, in which 51,465 male and 51,391 female, between the years 2014 – 2017. The population data indicates that 4.8 percent of the total population is living in urban areas while 95.2% in rural areas.

East Eastie

East Estie is one of the woredas in the Amhara Region of Ethiopia. It is one of the woredas of South Gondar Administrative Zone. The woreda has a total of 36 kebeles (lowest administrative units). The total population of the woreda is 210,955. The land mass in East Estie is composed of about 78,900 ha (57.4%) is valley/gorge and about 3,890 ha (2.83%) mountainous. Part of Mount Guna (> 4000 m asl) is located in this woreda.  About 48,300 ha (35%) of the landscape is plain. The remaining 4.5% are rivers and wetlands.Agriculture is the most important sector in the woreda. Currently from the total potential arable land, 60,246 ha, about 60,171 ha of is cultivated in the woreda for crop production. From this the total cultivated land through irrigation is 8,586 ha, which is about 14.3% of the total cultivated land .The potential irrigable land is small (13,800 ha), which is about 23% of the total arable land.

East Estie as in any other rural woredas of Ethiopia has high livestock population. As a result of its diverse agroecology, almost all types of domestic animals found in Ethiopia are also found in East Esties.

Adwa Woreda

Adwa is located in the central zone of Tigray region state, Ethiopia and is one of 36 woredas of the Tigray regional state. The woreda lies in midland with average temperature 27 ºC, the annual amount of rainfall of ranging from 600 – 850 mm, and an altitudinal range of 1650-2258 meter above sea level.  It is geographically located within 14˚ 9' 15'' N and 38˚ 53' 57'' E. The total area of woreda is about 66618 Ha. It is bordered in the north by woreda Merebleke, in the south by woreda Werileke, in the East by woreda Ahferom and in the west by Laelay Maichew woreda. The woreda has 18 rural villages called Tabias. The dominant agro ecological of the woreda is 68% (12 Tabias) Weina Dega (Midland) which has moderate moisture and 32% (6 Tabias) Kolla (low moisture). These altitudinal agro ecological belts are generally accepted as having land use forms suitable for crop cultivation of barley, Wheat, Pulses, Teff, Maize and Sorghum, as well as horticulture production of vegetables and fruits in the vast riverside valleys of the fertile low lands (Adwa woreda Agricultural office, 2015).

Majority of the woreda is covered by undulating big mountainous and it has a number of ancient monasteries like Yeha and Endabagerima which are known tourist attractions. Besides, the Woreda has all weather roads, easily accessible underground water and with perennial rivers like Sesa and Asem having huge potential for irrigation.


Total population of the Wonsho woreda is102380 out of which 52008 and 50372 are male and female respectively. The woreda Agriculture and Early Warning office provides climate related information for the farmer households. From the traditional coping strategies that have been practiced in the district, changing the land use system to reduce climate effects on crop production (for example, land use change from grazing and forest to crop production) was the major one.

The level of private public partnership is at its initial stages though SLMP has started supporting women and youth to establish cooperatives in various income generating schemes such us poultry production, beef fattening, small businesses and activities related to integrated watershed management practices of the selected watershed kebeles of Wonsho woreda.