Population: 28,308,301 (September 2016 est.)

Age structure:

  • -14 years: 38.2% (male 5,164,505/female 5,113,185)
  • 15-24 years: 18.66% (male 2,498,185/female 2,522,353)
  • 25-54 years: 34.05% (male 4,445,321/female 4,716,311)
  • 55-64 years: 4.91% (male 642,984/female 678,784

Median age:

  • Total: 21 years
  • Male: 20.5 years
  • Female: 21.5 years (2016 est.)

Population growth rate: 2.18% (2016 est.)

Major urban areas - population: Kumasi 2.599 million; ACCRA (capital) 2.277 million (2015)

Source: CIA Fact book

Ghana Statistical Service

 

 

 

 

GDP: $37.86 billion (2015 est.)

GDP Annual Growth rate: 3.9% (2015 est.)

GDP Contributor by main sector:

  • Agriculture: 20.7%
  • Industry: 27.7%
  • Services: 51.6% (2015 est.)

 [visualizer id="3207"]

Economy contributor: Agriculture accounts for nearly one-quarter of GDP and employs more than half of the workforce, mainly small landholders. The services sector accounts for about half of GDP. Gold and cocoa exports, and individual remittances, are major sources of foreign exchange. Expansion of Ghana’s nascent oil industry has boosted economic growth, but the recent oil price crash reduced by half Ghana’s 2015 oil revenue.

Sources: CIA Fact book, World bank

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Location: Western Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Cote d'Ivoire and Togo
Area:

  • total: 238,533 sq km
  • land: 227,533 sq km
  • water: 11,000 sq km

Coast line: 539 km
Maritime claims:

  • territorial sea: 12 nm
  • contagious zone: 24 nm
  • exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  • continental shelf: 200 nm

Land use:

  • Agricultural land: 15700 (1000 Ha)
  • Arable land: arable land 20.7%
  • Forest: 21.1%
  • Other: 9.7% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land: 340 sq km (2012)
Total renewable water resources: 53.2 cu km (2011)
Sources: CIA Fact book, FAO

 

 

 

Planning Framework

Previously the Assembly’s Central Administration budget conformed to the District’s Annual Action Plan (AAP) which is derived from the District Medium Term Development Plan (MTDP). However, the decentralized departments’ budgets were aligned to their parent Ministries’ Sector plans with very weak link to the Assemblies’ MTDPs and AAPs. The effect of this uncoordinated planning and budgeting process at the district level undermined the decentralization policy.

To deal with this, the Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning formulated a composite budgeting manual for MMDAs, whose main purpose is to serve as a user guide for the preparation of a composite budget. It also serves as a material for training, to assist Regional and District Budget Committees in the systematic analysis of budget data, forecasting, and costing of projects and programmes in the MTDPs and Annual Action Plans (AAPs) of the Assemblies. The composite budget process allows for the integration of the Assemblies’ Central Administration Budgets and the departmental budgets to ensure better coordination, ownership, control and accountability of the budgeting process at the MMDA level.

The importance of decentralization and working at the sub-national level in Ghana is cemented in its 1992 Constitution, leading to significant reforms, which created a new local government and administrative structure that transferred key responsibilities, competences, powers and resources of the national government to sub-national structures:

  • National level: Ministries have been restructured into four-line directorates to deal with broad sector policy formulation, planning, budgeting and monitoring and evaluation.
  • Regional level: Regional Coordinating Councils (RCC) coordinate, harmonize, monitor and evaluate the activities of metropolitan, municipal and district assemblies within their respective areas of jurisdiction.
  • District level: Metropolitan, municipal and district assemblies are the highest political administrative, legislative, development planning.
  • Sub district level: Sub metro district councils, urban councils, zonal councils, town councils, area councils and unit committees perform community and grassroots planning and management functions in support of the district assemblies within which they are located.

The timeline for planning and budgeting at national and sub-national level is guided by the Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning’s composite budgeting manual for Metropolitan, Municipal and District Assemblies (MMDAs). This manual assist Regional and District Budget Committees in the systematic analysis of budget data, forecasting and costing of projects and programmes as indicated in the District Medium Term Development Plans (MTDPs) (renewed every 4 years) and Annual Action Plans (AAPs) of the Assemblies (drafted annually).

Planning Structure of Ghana

 

The Case of Ghana: Sub-national planning process

Ghana was selected as one of the five pilot countries because of its long-standing commitment to the Green Economy approach. Ghana’s Vision 2020 (1995) and beyond already recognised the importance of reducing the country’s vulnerability to climate change and the need to protect natural resources and promote their sustainable use.

Since, the country has taken key strategic measures to transition to the Green Economy approach by conducting the Green Economy Scoping Report (2013), which selected priority sectors to implement the Green Economy approach, and by developing the Sustainable Development Action Plan (2011-2016) (SDAP) (2010), which identified 33 projects in 14 sub-sectors, including agriculture, forestry & logging, energy and waste management.

The Project Area: Tolon District, Kumasi and Tema Metropolitan Assembly

The Environmental Protection Agency which is the national implementing partner selected Tolon District, Kumasi and Tema Metropolitan Assembly as the focus area for pilot testing the Green Economy Project because of:

  1. Availability of natural, institutional and human resources for developing and implementing a Green Economy Programme.

  2. Presence of an existing planning and decision-making process/experience at district level, conforming with the level of decentralization.

  3. Willingness/commitment of district planning authorities to Green Economy Transition.

  4. The potential to generate useful experiences and lessons on developing and implementing Green Economy Implementation Programme.

  5. Accessibility of the districts to serve as demonstration sites for further replication.

  6. Geographical balance.

Tema Metropolitan Assembly

  • Area: 396km2

  • Population: 402,637 (2010)

Focus: Waste Sector

 

Tolon District

  • Area: 1353.66km2

  • Population: 72,990 (2012

Focus: Agriculture Sector

 

Kumasi Metropolitan Assembly

  • Area: 214.3km2

  • Population: 2,187,772 (2016)

Focus: Energy Sector

Baseline surveys, based on primary and secondary data collection methods, were carried out and one key sector for each project areas were identified to amplify existing efforts to implement and mainstream Ghana’s Green Economy Programme into the planning scheme at the sub-national level.

Integrating the Green Economy approach into sub-governmental planning

Workshops and trainings were carried out at national and district level to support the Green Economy transition at the sub-national level:

Training of Trainers at National Level

Objective:

  • Familiarization with the Green Economy toolkit through hands-on training;

  • Training of trainers to expand local capacity to assist in local level training of the toolkit.

Impact/Outcome:

  • 43 experts, from sector-specific ministries and departments, pilot districts, academia, and private sector, familiarized and trained in Green Economy toolkit;

  • Sample integrated Green Economy Implementation Plans developed.

Sub-National Level Training

Objective:

  • Familiarization with the Green Economy toolkit and step-by-step guide;

  • Capacity building of districts and stakeholders on the application of Green Economy Toolkit;

  • Development of sector-specific Green Economy Plans.

Impact/Outcome:

  • 94 experts, from District Planning Coordinating Units (DPUCs) and Decentralized Departments (DDs) of Assemblies, as well as academia, NGOs and private sector, trained in usage of the Green Economy toolkit and step-by-step guide;

  • Draft sector-specific Green Economy Implementation Plans (IGEIPs) developed for effective integration into district development plans.

    • Tolon District: Agriculture Sector

    • Kumasi Metropolitan: Energy Sector

    • Tema Metropolitan: Waste Sector

Regional Coordinating Councils (RCC) Sensitization Workshop

Objective:

  • Familiarization with the Green Economy toolkit and step-by-step guide;

  • Integration of the Green Economy toolkit and the step-by-step guide into the district planning process.

Impact/Outcome:

  • 29 experts familiarized with the Green Economy toolkit and step-by-step guide;

  • Draft Integrated Green Economy Implementation Plans (IGEIPs) presented to the 10 Regional Economic Planning Officers (REPOs) of Ghana’s 10 administrative regions and input received;

  • Agreement on modalities for the usage of the toolkit and the step-by-step guide in the district planning process.

National Development Planning Commission (NDPC) Workshop

Objective:

  • Familiarization with the Green Economy toolkit;

  • Integration of the Green Economy toolkit into the national planning guidelines and step-by-step guide;

Impact/Outcome:

  • 27 participants/Staffs familiarized with the Green Economy toolkit;

  • Capacity increased on the usage of the toolkit and the step-by-step guide to facilitate the integration into the next national planning guidelines;

  • Commitment to study the Green Economy toolkit for adoption into the national planning guidelines developed for sectors and districts;

  • Activities related to the thematic areas already captured in the District Medium Term Development Plans (DMTDP) integrated in the 2017 Annual Action Plans (AAP);

Proposal Writing Workshop

Objective:

  • Enhanced capacity of district experts to develop funding proposals from private sector or international donor.

Impact/Outcome:

  • 25 staffs, from pilot districts and national institutions trained to write funding proposals;

  • Draft proposals for African Union’s all for proposal on ‘Sustainable Agricultural Intensification, within the broader theme of Food, Nutrition Security and Sustainable Agriculture (FNSSA)’ to support implementation of Green Economy activities at district level.

SWOT Analysis – A Summary of Key Issues

In order to replicate pilot lessons and experiences of the Green Economy project, both within the sectoral planning process of other sub-governmental counties within Ghana and across the region, the Strength, Weaknesses (Challenges), Opportunities and Threats were assessed as summarized below:

In order to replicate pilot lessons and experiences of the Green Economy project, both within the sectoral planning process of other sub-governmental counties within Ghana and across the region, the Strength, Weaknesses (Challenges), Opportunities and Threats were assessed as summarized below:

Summary and Recommendations

The implementation of the Green Economy in Ghana was carried out to the best of their ability considering the challenges that were encountered (see section 5 above). Key impacts of the project included:

  • Technical capacity on the Green Economy toolkit and step-by-step guide increased to mainstream Green Economy transition into sub-governmental planning;

  • Elements of Green Economy toolkit and the step-by-step guide integrated into national planning guidelines for sectors and districts;

  • Draft sector-specific Green Economy Implementation Plans partially integrated into District Medium Term Development Plans and Annual Action Plans (2017);

  • Proposal writing workshop carried out to support implementation of the identified Green Economy projects at sub-national level;

  • Knowledge transfer project partners in future sectoral planning meetings, amplifying the Green Economy transition at the sub-national level.

 

To support the replication and scale-up of country specific lessons and experiences to other local regions within the pilot countries and across the African continent, the case of Ghana clearly highlights the need for:

  • Extensive capacity building at both national and sub-national level essential to enhance replication of experiences and lessons learned from pilot districts;

  • Sufficient availability of resources (human and financial) to support the implementation of Green Economy transition at the sub-national level;

  • Integration of a comprehensive monitoring and evaluation framework to ensure effective implementation and long-term sustainability of Green Economy activities;

  • Additional/adapted tools and frameworks focusing on gender specific issues to support Green Economy transition;

  • Availability of additional resources to support upscaling Green Economy transition;

  • Effective communication systems and project coordination to facilitate the smooth implementation of project activities;

  • In-depth project consultations ensuring the ownership of the project at national level, (e.g. steering committee meetings, to ensure effective project implementation;

  • Additional measures to ensure the long-term sustainability and impact of the Green Economy project in project areas and beyond.