Population: 46,790,758

Age structure:

  • -14 years: 40.87% (male 9,592,017/female 9,532,032)
  • 15-24 years: 18.83% (male 4,398,554/female 4,411,586)
  • 25-54 years: 33.54% (male 7,938,111/female 7,755,128)
  • 55-64 years: 3.84% (male 819,665/female 976,862)
  • 65 years and over: 2.92% (male 590,961/female 775,842) (2016 est.)

Median age:

  • Total: 19.5 years
  • Male: 19.4 years
  • Female: 19.6 years (2016 est.)

Population growth rate: 1.81% (2016 est.)

Major urban areas - population: NAIROBI (capital) 3.915 million; Mombasa 1.104 million (2015)

Source: CIA Fact book

GDP: $63.40 billion (2015 est.)

GDP Annual Growth rate: 5.6% (2015 est)

Since 2014 Kenya has been ranked as a lower middle income country because its per capita GDP crossed a World Bank threshold.

GDP Contributor by main sector:

  • Agriculture: 29.9%
  • Industry: 19.5%
  • Services: 50.6% (2015 est.)

Economy contributor: Agriculture remains the backbone of the Kenyan economy, contributing 25% of GDP. About 80% of Kenya’s population of roughly 42 million work at least part-time in the agricultural sector, including livestock and pastoral activities. Over 75% of agricultural output is from small-scale, rain-fed farming or livestock production. Tourism also holds a significant place in Kenya’s economy.

Sources: CIA Fact book  ,World Bank

Location: Eastern Africa, bordering the Indian Ocean, between Somalia and Tanzania


  • total: 580,367 sq km
  • land: 569,140 sq km
  • water: 11,227 sq km

Coast line: 536 km

Maritime claims:

  • territorial sea: 12 nm
  • exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
  • continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation

Land use:

  • Agricultural land: 27630 (1000 Ha)
  • Arable land 9.8%; permanent crops 0.9%; permanent pasture 37.4%
  • Forest: 6.1%
  • Other: 45.8% (2011 est.)

Irrigated land: 1,030 sq km (2012)

Total renewable water resources: 30.7 cu km (2011)

Source: CIA Fact book

Planning Framework

The timeline for planning and budgeting at national and sub-national level are regulated largely through the Public Finance Management Act 2012. The act provides specific deadlines that must be met throughout the financial year (FY).

The FY commences on 1st July and ends on 30th June of each year. The following time-line provides an overview of the key milestones that need to be adhered to for both planning and budgeting at national and in particular at county level. The draft time-line shown in Figure 1 presents an overview of the key milestones that need to be achieved throughout a normal annual planning cycle. In addition to this cycle, a separate planning cycle exists with regard to the development of the CIDP and its subordinate plans such as the sector strategies, spatial development plans and urban plans. As the CIDPs for most of the 47 counties in Kenya have been completed, the planning steps will need to be defined at the next review and updating of the CIDP which will take place starting for most counties in 2017.

The Case of Kenya: Sub-national planning process

Kenya was selected as one of the pilot countries because of its general commitment to the Green Economy Agenda. Grounded in Kenya’s constitution (2010) and integrated into the country’s Vision 2030, efforts have been made to introduce and implement policies and initiatives that support in part transition to Green Economy at the national level. At the county level, County Integrated Development Plans (CIPD) (valid for 5 years), including their sector plans (valid for 10 years), have to be aligned with Kenya’s Vision 2030 and the respective Medium-Term Plan (MTP) and the Medium-Term Expenditure Framework, which are committed to developing a green economy strategy. The second MTP (2013-2018) gives priority to devolution, increasing the county’s responsibility and leadership to translate the desired national socio-economic development efforts towards addressing key challenges such as poverty, unemployment, inequality, environmental degradation, climate change and variability, infrastructure gaps and food insecurity.

The timeline for planning and budgeting at national and sub-national level are regulated largely through the Public Finance Management Act (2012), with the financial year commencing on 1st July and ends on 30th June of each year.

The Project Area: Mombasa and Nakuru County

The Ministry of Environment and Natural Resources selected Mombasa and Nakuru county as the focus area for pilot testing the Green Economy Project in Kenya.

A set of criteria was developed for the selection of pilot regions. The regions need to have available secondary data that allows a ready and easy comparison of most sub-national areas to allows for easy replication. They also have to reflect on the pilot activities.

Baseline surveys, based on primary and secondary data collection methods, were carried out to:

  • Analyse their socio-economic development;

  • Review their existing development plans;

  • Document their status regarding Green Economy transition.

Nakuru County:                                                                                           Mombasa County:

Area: 7496.5km2                                                                                    Area: 220.9km2

Governance: 9 Sub-counties, 11 Constituencies and 55 Wards    Governance: 6 Sub-counties, 11 Constituencies and 55 Wards

Population: 2,046,395 (2016)                                                                Population: 1,000,00 (2016)


The following sectors were selected and explored for the effective integration of Green Economy options that could be integrated into the sectoral plans at a sub-governmental level:

  • Mombasa County: Tourism, Transport, Energy and Waste;

  • Nakuru County: Agriculture, Food, Energy, Waste and Water.


Integrating the Green Economy approach into sub-governmental planning

Workshops and trainings were carried out at the sub-national level to support the implementation of the Green Economy approach:

Preparatory workshop


  • Introduction to Green Economy concept;

  • Familiarization with Kenya’s Green Economy Strategy & Implementation Plan (GESIP);

  • Introduction to the step-by-step guide to Green Economy Planning.



  • 30 sectoral experts, including planning unit officials & Ministry representatives, trained in Green Economy concept;

  • The county planning process reviewed with the aim of identifying the entry point the Green Economy project;

  • Identification of priority sectors per county;

  • Familiarization of the step-by-step Green Economy planning process to experts.

Figure (Right) : Integration of GE options into Sectoral Planning Process


Training workshops


  • Training of trainers of trainers & county experts;

  • Identification of Green Economy development options per sector based on the step-by-step toolkit and baseline reports;

  • Feasibility assessment of Green Economy options, cross-sectoral impacts and synergies.


  • Experts trained in usage of the step by step guide for green economy planning;

  • County specific priorities identified based on national and county-related policies, strategies and action plans;

  • Identification of Green Economy options including measurable actions per sector for potential integration into Annual Development Plans at county level.


Annual Development Plans (ADP) Harmonization Workshop


  • Integration of Green Economy options into ADPs at county level;

  • Use the step-by-step guide to Green Economy Planning to support integrate Green Economy development options into ADPs.


  • Strategic planning capacity at local level strengthened overall;

  • “Greened” Annual Development Plans, approved by the County Assembly.

  • Mombasa County:

  • Measures, policies & regulations to reduce emission & support green transport;

  • Increased energy efficiency, encourage renewable energy & building options;

  • Develop local, more sustainable tourism options that celebrate cultural heritage & promote domestic conference tourism.

  • Nakuru County:

  • Increased measured to support energy efficiency, renewable & bioenergy options;

  • Improved preparedness & implementation of disaster management measures;

  • Enhanced recycling & waste collection, transport and disposal;

  • Expansion & upgrade of water supply services.


Summary and Recommendations

The implementation of the Green Economy in Kenya was conducted as thoroughly and effectively as possible considering the challenges that were encountered (see section 5 above). Key impacts of the project included:

  • Technical capacity building on the step-by-step process of integrating Green Economy options into sub-governmental planning;

  • Strategic planning capacity at sub-governmental level strengthened;

  • Integration of Green Economy development options into the ADPs of Mombasa and Nakuru county;

  • ADPs of Mombasa and Nakuru county serve as case studies for the other 45 counties to integrate Green Economy development options;

  • In future, all counties will carry out a Natural Resource Assessment to inform sectoral planning process to ensure that scarce resources are mapped and Green Economy options can be designed to conserve them;

  • Together with the Ministry of Devolution and Planning, the project led to the integration of the Green Economy approach into the guidelines for the effective development of County Integrated Development Plans (CIDS) (2018 -2022);

  • Ministry of Environment has included the implementation of Green Economy as a priority in county planning for all 45 counties by in Kenya’s 3rd Medium Term (MTP III).


To support the replication and scale-up pf country specific lessons and experiences to other local regions within the pilot countries and across the African continent, the case of Kenya clearly highlights:

  1. The importance of experience and exposure of sectoral experts locally to develop strategic sectoral plans in general;

  2. The importance of understanding the country’s national framework and knowledge of the Green Economy approach to enable the identification of development options that are pro-poor, resource efficient, ecosystem restoring and climate friendly;

  3. The importance of capacity building at the beginning of the project to empower and support national sectoral experts to train county sector planning experts and planning unit officials to ensure that the identified projects offer social and environmental benefits to local communities.